Before you start tapping into your retirement savings, you may want to read this first:
If you are under age 59½ and plan to withdraw money from a qualified retirement account, you will likely pay both income tax and a 10% early-distribution tax on any previously un-taxed money that you take out. Withdrawals you make from a SIMPLE IRA before age 59½ and those you make during the 2-year rollover restriction period after establishing the SIMPLE IRA may be subject to a 25% additional early-distribution tax instead of the normal 10%. The 2-year period is measured from the first day that contributions are deposited. These penalties are just what you’d pay on your federal return; your state may also charge an early-withdrawal penalty in addition to the regular state income tax.
The following exceptions may help you avoid the penalty:
- Withdrawals from any retirement plan to pay medical expenses—Amounts withdrawn to pay unreimbursed medical expenses are exempt from penalty if they would be deductible on Schedule A during the year and if they exceed 10% of your adjusted gross income. This is true even if you do not
- IRA withdrawals annuitized over your lifetime—To qualify, the withdrawals must continue unchanged for a minimum of 5 years, including after you reach age 59½.
- Employer retirement plan withdrawals—To qualify, you must be separated from service and be age 55 or older in that year (the lower limit is age 50 for qualified public-service employees such as police officers and firefighters) or elect to receive the money in substantially equal periodic payments after your separation from service.
- Withdrawals from any retirement plan as a result of a disability—You are considered disabled if you can furnish proof that you cannot perform any substantial gainful activities because of a physical or mental condition. A physician must certify your condition.
- IRA withdrawals by unemployed individuals to pay medical insurance premiums—The amount that is exempt from penalty cannot be more than the amount you paid during the year for medical insurance for yourself, your spouse, and your dependents. You also must have received unemployment compensation for at least 12 weeks during the year.
- IRA withdrawals to pay higher education expenses—Withdrawals made during the year for qualified higher education expenses for yourself, your spouse, or your children or grandchildren are exempt from the early-withdrawal penalty.
- IRA withdrawals to buy, build, or rebuild a first home—Generally, you are considered a first-time homebuyer for this exception if you had no present interest in a main home during the 2-year period leading up to the date the home was acquired, and the distribution must be used to buy, build, or rebuild that home. If you are married, your spouse must also meet this no-ownership requirement. This exception applies only to the first $10,000 of withdrawals used for this purpose. If married, you and your spouse can each withdraw up to $10,000 penalty-free from your respective IRA accounts.
You should be aware that the information provided above is an overview of the penalty exceptions and that conditions other than those listed above may need to be met before qualifying for a particular exception. You are encouraged to contact this office before tapping your retirement funds for uses other than retirement. Distributions are most often subject to both normal taxes and other penalties, which can take a significant bite out of the distribution. However, with carefully planned distributions, both the taxes and the penalties can be minimized. Please call Dagley & Co. for assistance.
Planning to adopt a child or children? Or, are you already an adoptive parent? If so, we have good news for you! You may be able to qualify for an income-tax credit. This credit will be based on the amount of expenses you have incurred during the adoption period, which are directly related to the adoption of the following: 1. A child under the age of 18, or 2. a person who is physically or mentally incapable of self-care.
This is a 1:1 credit for each dollar of qualified expenses up to a maximum for the year, which is $13,570 for 2017 (up from $13,460 in 2016). The credit is nonrefundable, which means it can only reduce tax liability to zero (as opposed to potentially resulting in a cash refund). But the good news is that any unused credit can be used for up to five years to reduce future tax liability.
Qualified expenses generally include adoption fees, court costs, attorney fees and travel expenses that are reasonable, necessary and directly related to the adoption of the child, and may be for both domestic and foreign adoptions; however, expenses related to adopting a spouse’s child are not eligible for this credit. When adopting a child with special needs, the full credit is allowed whether or not any qualified expenses were incurred. A child with special needs is, among other requirements, a child who the state has determined (a) cannot or should not be returned to his or her parents’ home and (b) that the child won’t be adopted unless assistance is provided to the adoptive parents.
The credit is phased out for higher-income taxpayers. For 2017, the AGI (computed without foreign-income exclusions) phase-out threshold is $203,540, and at the AGI of $243,540, the credit is completely phased out. Unlike most phase-outs, this one is the same regardless of filing status. However, the credit cannot be claimed by taxpayers using the filing status married filing separately.
If your employer has an adoption-assistance program, up to $13,570 of reimbursements by the employer are excludable from income. Both the tax credit and the exclusion may be claimed, though not for the same expenses.
If you think you qualify for this credit or are planning an adoption in the future, please contact Dagley & Co. for further credit details and to find out how this credit can apply to your particular circumstances.
Image via public domain
On May 4th, the House of Representatives passed the proposed American Health Care Act (AHCA). This would repeal and replace several arrangements of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
Exact details are not available, but, we have found some details from the original draft legislation published on March 6 to give you an idea of the how this will function (please keep in mind that some provisions were modified with respect to existing conditions in order to obtain enough Republican votes to pass the bill).
GOP’s March Version of the AHCA
The American Health Care Act would repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In general, the GOP’s plan would continue the ACA’s premium tax credit through 2019 and then replace it in 2020 with a new credit for individuals without government insurance and for those who are not offered insurance by their employer. However, most of the ACA’s insurance mandates and penalties would be repealed retroactive to 2015. Other provisions will be overturned periodically through 2019.
- Repeal of the Individual Mandate
Background: Under the ACA, individuals are generally required to have ACA- compliant health insurance or face a “shared responsibility payment” (a penalty for not being insured). For 2016, the annual penalty was $695 per uninsured individual ($347.50 per child), with a maximum penalty of $2,085 per family.
AHCA Legislation: Under the new legislation, this penalty would be repealed after 2015.
- Repeal of the Employer Mandate
Background: Under the ACA, large employers, generally those with 50 or more equivalent full-time employees, were subject to penalties that could reach thousands of dollars per employee for not offering their full-time employees affordable health insurance. These employers were also subject to some very complicated reporting requirements.
AHCA Legislation: Under the new legislation, this penalty would be repealed after 2015.
- Recapture and Repeal of the Premium Tax Credit
Background: The premium tax credit (PTC) is a health insurance subsidy for lower-income individuals, and it is based on their household income for the year. Since the household income can only be estimated at the beginning of the year, the insurance subsidy, known as the advance premium tax credit (APTC), must also be estimated at the beginning of the year. Then, when the tax return for the year is prepared, the difference between the estimated amount of the subsidy (APTC) and the actual subsidy allowed (PTC) is determined based on the actual household income for the year. If the subsidy paid was less than what the individual was entitled to, the excess is credited to the individual’s tax return. If the subsidy paid was more than what the individual was entitled to, the difference is repaid on the tax return. However, for lower-income taxpayers there is a cap on the amount that needs to repaid, and this is also based on household income.
AHCA Legislation: For tax years 2018 and 2019, the GOP legislation would require the repayment of the entire difference regardless of income. In addition, the PTC would be repealed after 2019.
- Catastrophic Insurance
Background: The current law does not allow the PTC to be used for the purchase of catastrophic health insurance.
AHCA Legislation: The new legislation would allow premium tax credits to be used for the purchase of qualified “catastrophic-only” health plans and certain qualified plans not offered through an Exchange.
- Refundable Tax Credit for Health Insurance
Beginning in 2020, as a replacement for the current ACA insurance subsidies (PTC), the AHCA legislation would create a universal refundable tax credit for the purchase of state-approved major medical health insurance and unsubsidized COBRA coverage. Generally eligible individuals are those who do not have access to government health insurance programs or an offer of insurance from any employer.
The credit is determined monthly and ranges from $2,000 a year for those under age 30 to $4,000 for those over 60. The credit is additive for a family and capped at $14,000. The credit phases out for individuals who make more than $75,000 and for couples who file jointly and make more than $150,000.
- Health Savings Accounts
Background: Individuals covered by high-deductible health plans can generally make tax-deductible contributions to a health savings account (HSA). Currently (2017), the maximum that can be contributed is $3,400 for self-only coverage and $6,750 for family coverage. Distributions from an HSA to pay qualified medical expenses are tax-free. However, nonqualified distributions are taxable and generally subject to a 20% penalty.
AHCA Legislation: Beginning in 2018, the HSA contribution limit would be increased to at least $6,550 for those with self-only coverage and to $13,100 for those with family coverage. In addition, the new legislation would do the following:
- Allow both spouses to make catch-up contributions (applies to those age55 through 64) beginning in 2018.
- Allow medical expenses to be reimbursed if they were incurred 60 days prior to the establishment of the HSA (whereas currently, expenses qualify only if they are incurred after the HSA is established).
- Lower the penalty for nonqualified distributions from the current 20% to 10% (the amount of the penalty prior to 2011).
- Medical Deduction Income Limitation
Background: As part of the ACA, the income threshold for itemizing and deducting medical expenses was increased from 7.5% to 10% of the taxpayer’s AGI.
AHCA Legislation: Under the new legislation, the threshold would be returned to 7.5% beginning in 2018 (2017 for taxpayers age 65 or older).
- Repeal of Net Investment Income Tax
Background: The ACA imposed a 3.8% surtax on net investment income for higher-income taxpayers, generally single individuals with incomes above $200,000 ($250,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly).
AHCA Legislation: The new legislation would repeal this tax after 2017.
- Repeal on FSA Contribution Limits
Background: Flexible spending accounts (FSAs) generally allow employees to designate pre-tax funds that can be deposited in the employer’s FSA, which the employee can then use to pay for medical and other qualified expenses. Effective beginning in 2013, annual contributions to health FSAs (also referred to as cafeteria plans) were limited to an inflation-adjusted $2,500. For 2017, the inflation limitation is $2,550.
AHCA Legislation: The new legislation would remove the health FSA contribution limit, effective starting in 2017.
- Repeal of Increased Medicare Tax
Background: Beginning in 2013, the ACA imposed an additional Medicare Hospital Insurance (HI) surtax of 0.9% on individuals with wage or self-employed income in excess of $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing jointly).
AHCA Legislation: The new legislation would repeal this surtax beginning in 2018.
- Other Provisions
- Preexisting Conditions – Prohibits health insurers from denying coverage or charging more for preexisting conditions. However, to discourage people from waiting to buy health insurance until they are sick, the legislation as introduced would require individuals to maintain “continuous” coverage. Those who go uninsured for longer than a set period will be subject to 30% higher premiums as a penalty.
Children Under Age 26 – Allows children under age 26 to remain on their parents’ health plan until they are 26.
- Small Business Health Insurance Tax Credit– Repealed after 2019
- Medical Device Tax– Repealed after 2017
- Tanning Tax– Repealed after 2018
- Over-the-Counter Medication Tax– Repealed after 2017
Questions? Contact Dagley & Co.
Do you find that your required minimum distributions (RMDs) from qualified plans and IRAs are providing unneeded income and a high tax bill? Or, are you afraid that the government’s RMD requirements will leave too little in your retirement plan for your later years? If you answered yes to either of these, good news! You can now use a qualified longevity annuity contract (QLAC) to reduce your RMDs and extend the life of your retirement distributions.
The government allows individuals to purchase QLACs with their retirement funds, thus reducing the value of those funds (subject to the RMD rules) and in turn reducing the funds’ annual RMDs.
A QLAC is a deferred-income annuity that begins at an advanced age and that meets the stringent limitations included in the tax regulations. One benefit of a retirement-planning strategy involving QLACs is that they provide a form of longevity insurance, allowing taxpayers to use part of their retirement savings to buy an annuity that helps protect them from outliving their assets.
The tax-planning benefits of QLACs are twofold:
- Because the QLAC is purchased using funds from a qualified retirement plan or IRA, that plan’s year-end balance (value) is lowered. This causes the RMDs for future years to be less than they otherwise would be, as the RMD is determined by dividing the account balance (from 12/31 of the prior year) by an annuity factor that is based on the retiree’s age.
Example: Jack is age 74, and the annuity table lists his remaining distribution period as 23.8 years. The balance of his IRA account on 12/31/2016 is $400,000. Thus, his RMD for 2017 would be $16,807 ($400,000 / 23.8). However, if Jack had purchased a $100,000 QLAC with his IRA funds during 2016, his balance would have been $300,000, and his 2017 RMD would be $12,605 ($300,000 / 23.8). By purchasing the $100,000 QLAC, Jack would have reduced his RMD for 2016 by $4,202 ($16,807 – $12,605). This reduction would continue for all future years. Later, the $100,000 QLAC would provide retirement benefits, likely beginning when Jack reaches age 85.
(2) Tax on the annuity will be deferred until payments commence under the annuity contract.
A deferred-income annuity must meet a number of requirements to be treated as a QLAC, including the following:
Limitation on premiums – When buying a QLAC, a taxpayer can use up to the lesser of $125,000 or 25% of his or her total non-Roth IRA balances. The dollar limitation applies to the sum of the premiums paid on all QLAC contracts.
When distributions must commence – Distributions under a QLAC must commence by a specified annuity starting date, which is no later than the first day of the month after the taxpayer’s 85th birthday.
For additional details about how QLACs might fit into your retirement strategy, please give Dagley & Co. a call.
Image via public domain
Often times, small business owners find difficulties in obtaining financing for their businesses without putting their personal assets up as collateral. With this, tapping into your home equity is a tempting alternative but should be carefully considered.
In general, interest on debt used to acquire and operate your business is deductible against that business. However, debt secured by your home may be nondeductible, only partially deductible or fully deductible against your business.
Home mortgage interest is limited to the interest on $1 million of acquisition debt and $100,000 of equity debt secured by a taxpayer’s primary residence and designated second home. The interest on the debts within these limits can only be treated as home mortgage interest and must be deducted as part of your itemized deductions. Only the excess can be deducted for your business, provided that the use of the funds can be traced to your business use. This creates a number of problems:
- Using the Standard Deduction – If you do not itemize your deductions, you will be unable to deduct the interest on the first $100,000 of the equity debt, which cannot be allocated to your business.
- Subject to the AMT – Even if you do itemize your deductions, if you happen to be subject to the alternative minimum tax (AMT), you still would not be able to deduct the first $100,000 of equity debt interest, since it is not allowed as a deduction for AMT purposes.
- Subject to Self-Employment (SE) Tax – Your self-employment tax (Social Security and Medicare) is based on the net profits from your business. If the net profit is higher, because not all of the interest is deductible by the business, your SE tax may also be higher.
Example: Suppose the mortgage you incurred to purchase your home (acquisition debt) has a current balance of $165,000 and your home is worth $400,000. You need $150,000 to acquire a new business. To obtain the needed cash at the best interest rates, you decide to refinance your home mortgage for $315,000. The interest on this new loan will be allocated as follows:
New Loan: $ 315,000
Part Representing Acquisition Debt <165,000> 52.38%
Balance $ 150,000
First $100,000 Treated as Home Equity Debt <100,000> 31.75%
Balance Traced to Business Use $ 50,000 15.87%
If the interest for the year on the refinanced debt was $10,000, then that interest would be deducted as follows:
Itemized Deduction Regular Tax $ 8,413 84.13%
Itemized Deduction Alternative Minimum Tax $ 5,238 52.38%
Business Expense $ 1,587 15.87%
There is a special tax election that allows you to treat any specified home loan as not secured by the home. If you file this election, then interest on the loan can no longer be deducted as home mortgage interest, since tax law requires that qualified home mortgage debt be secured by the home. However, this election would allow the normal interest tracing rules to apply to that unsecured debt. This might be a smart move if the entire proceeds were used for business and all of the interest expense could be treated as a business expense. However, if the loan were a mixed-use loan and part of it actually represented home debt (such as a refinanced home loan), then the part that represented the home debt could not be allocated back to the home, and the interest on that portion of the debt would become nondeductible and would provide no tax benefit.
As you can see, using equity from your home can create some complex tax situations. Please contact Dagley & Co. for assistance in determining the best solution for your particular tax situation.
Image via public domain
We’ve put together step-by-step instructions of how to receive payments from a customer using your QuickBooks account:
QuickBooks was designed to make your daily accounting tasks easier, faster, and more accurate. If you’ve been using the software for a while, you’ve probably found that to be true. Some chores, of course, aren’t so enjoyable. Like paying bills. Reconciling your bank account. Or anything else that has the potential to reduce the balance in your checking accounts.
The process of receiving customer payments is one of your more enjoyable responsibilities. You supplied a product or service that someone liked and purchased, and you’re getting the money due you.
Depending on the situation, you’ll use one of multiple methods to record customer payments. Here’s a look at some of your options.
A Familiar Screen
If you’re like many businesses, you send invoices to customers to let them know what they owe and when their payment is due. So one of the most commonly used ways to record payments is by using the Receive Payments window. To open it, click the Receive Payments icon on the home page or click Customers | Receive Payments.
You’ll use QuickBooks’ Receive Payments screen when you record a payment made in response to an invoice.
The first thing you’ll do, of course, is choose the correct customer by clicking the down arrow in the field to the right of RECEIVED FROM. The outstanding balance from that customer will appear in the upper right corner, and invoice information will be displayed in the table below. Enter the PAYMENT AMOUNT and make sure the DATE is correct. (The next field, REFERENCE #, changes to CHECK # only if the CHECK option is selected.)
Next, you’ll need to ensure that the payment is applied to the right invoices. If it covers the whole amount due, there will be a checkmark in every row in the first column of the table. If not, QuickBooks will use the money received to pay off the oldest invoices first. To change this, click Un-Apply Payment in the icon bar and click in front of the correct rows to create checkmarks.
You’ll then want to tell QuickBooks what payment method the customer is using. Four options are displayed. The possibilities that are visible here are:
- CREDIT DEBIT (A specific card type may be shown here if you’ve indicated the customer’s preferred payment method in his or her record.)
If the desired payment method isn’t included in those four, click the down arrow under MORE. If it’s still not there, click Add New Payment Method. This window will open:
The New Payment Method window
Click OK. When you choose your new payment method from the list, a window opens containing fields for the card number and expiration date. Click Done after you’ve entered it, and you’ll be returned to the Receive Payments screen. If you’re satisfied with your work there, click Save & Close or Save & New.
Haven’t gotten set up to accept credit and debit cards yet? We can get you going with a merchant account to make this possible. You’re likely to find that some customers pay faster with this option. Your customers will be able to click a link in an emailed invoice and make their payments.
Depending on the type of business you have and its physical location, there may be times when customers will come in and buy something on the spot. You’ll need to give them a Sales Receipt. Click Create Sales Receipts on the home page or open the Customers menu and select Enter Sales Receipts to open this window:
The Enter Sales Receipts window
You’ll complete this form much like you entered data in the fields of the Receive Payments window. As you can see, you can print the mail for the customer and/or email it.
After all the hard work you’ve done to make your sales, the last thing you want to do is record a payment incorrectly so it isn’t processed and you don’t get paid. Though QuickBooks makes the mechanics of receiving payments simple enough, you still should understand the entire process involved in getting income into the correct accounts. Dagley & Co. is available to help with this and any other areas of QuickBooks.