• Tax Implications of Crowdfunding

    17 April 2017
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    When raising money through Internet crowdfunding sites such as GoFundMe, Kickstarter or Indiegogo, it is important to understand the “taxability” of the money raised. Whether the money raised is taxable depends upon the purpose of the fundraising campaign. For example, fees can range from 5 to 9% depending on the site.

    Gifts – When an entity raises funds for its own benefit and the contributions are made out of detached generosity (and not because of any moral or legal duty or the incentive of anticipated economic benefit), the contributions are considered tax-free gifts to the recipient.

    On the other hand, the contributor is subject to the gift tax rules if he or she contributes more than $14,000 to a particular fundraising effort that benefits one individual; the contributor is then liable to file a gift tax return. Unfortunately, regardless of the need, gifts to individuals are never tax deductible.

    The “gift tax trap” occurs when an individual establishes a crowdfunding account to help someone else in need (whom we’ll call the beneficiary) and takes possession of the funds before passing the money on to the beneficiary. Because the fundraiser takes possession of the funds, the contributions are treated as a tax-free gift to the fundraiser. However, when the fundraiser passes the money on to the beneficiary, the money then is treated as a gift from the fundraiser to the beneficiary; if the amount is over $14,000, the fundraiser is required to file a gift tax return and to reduce his or her lifetime gift and estate tax exemption. Some crowdfunding sites allow the fundraiser to designate a beneficiary so that the beneficiary has direct access to the funds.

    Charitable Gifts – Even if the funds are being raised for a qualified charity, the contributors cannot deduct the donations as charitable contributions without proper documentation. Taxpayers cannot deduct cash contributions, regardless of the amount, unless they can document the contributions in one of the following ways:

    • Contribution Less Than $250: To claim a deduction for a contribution of less than $250, the taxpayer must have a cancelled check, a bank or credit card statement, or a letter from the qualified organization; this proof must show the name of the organization, the date of the contribution, and the amount of the contribution.
    • Cash contributions of $250 or More – To claim a deduction for a contribution of $250 or more, the taxpayer must have a written acknowledgment of the contribution from the qualified organization; this acknowledgment must include the following details:
      • The amount of cash contributed;
      • Whether the qualified organization gave the taxpayer goods or services (other than certain token items and membership benefits) as a result of the contribution, along with a description and good-faith estimate of the value of those goods or services (other than intangible religious benefits); and
      • A statement that the only benefit received was an intangible religious benefit, if that was the case.

    Thus, if the contributor is to claim a charitable deduction for the cash donation, some means of providing the contributor with a receipt must be established.

    Business Ventures – When raising money for business projects, two issues must be contended with: the taxability of the money raised and the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations that come into play if the contributor is given an ownership interest in the venture.

    • No Business Interest Given – This applies when the fundraiser only provides nominal gifts, such as products from the business, coffee cups, or T-shirts; the money raised is taxable to the fundraiser.
    • Business Interest Provided – This applies when the fundraiser provides the contributor with partial business ownership in the form of stock or a partnership interest; the money raised is treated as a capital contribution and is not taxable to the fundraiser. (The amount contributed becomes the contributor’s tax basis in the investment.) When the fundraiser is selling business ownership, the resulting sales must comply with SEC regulations, which generally require any such offering to be registered with the SEC. However, the SEC regulations were modified in 2012 to carve out a special exemption for crowdfunding:
      • Fundraising Maximum – The maximum amount a business can raise without registering its offering with the SEC in a 12-month period is $1 million. Non-U.S. companies, businesses without a business plan, firms that report under the Exchange Act, certain investment companies, and companies that have failed to meet their reporting responsibilities may not participate.
    • Contributor Maximum – The amount an individual can invest through crowdfunding in any 12-month period is limited:
      • If the individual’s annual income or net worth is less than $100,000, his or her equity investment through crowdfunding is limited to the greater of $2,000 or 5% of the investor’s annual net worth.
      • If the individual’s annual income or net worth is at least $100,000, his or her investment via crowdfunding is limited to 10% of the investor’s net worth or annual income, whichever is less, up to an aggregate limit of $100,000.

    If you have questions about crowdfunding-related tax issues, please give Dagley & Co. a call.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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  • Deducting More Than $250 For Teachers’ Classroom Supplies

    4 May 2016
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    Several years ago, Congress created a special deduction for teachers that would allow them to annually deduct up to $250 on their tax returns for classroom supplies—even if they don’t itemize their deductions. This was done to recognize those devoted teachers that spend a significant amount of their own money on supplies for their classroom. This type of deduction is termed an “above-the-line” deduction, and it is available even for taxpayers who claim the standard deduction.

    Those who teach kindergarten through grade 12 are eligible for the special $250 deduction. In addition to teachers, those eligible include counselors, principals, and aides who work at least 900 hours during a school year. Because of the 900-hour requirement, many substitute teachers do not qualify for this above-the-line deduction.

    However, most conscientious teachers spend far more than $250 for classroom supplies every year. What are the options for teachers who spend more than the $250 on classroom supplies or for teachers and other qualified individuals who do not meet the 900-hour test or other requirements to deduct the $250 above the line?

    When eligible, teachers should always claim the above-the-line deduction first; then, they should consider the following possibilities for the excess amount. This advice may also help colleagues who are ineligible for the above-the-line deduction.

    Employee Business Expense – One option is to claim expenses for classroom supplies beyond the $250 deduction as employee business expenses, which can be used as a miscellaneous itemized deduction. To claim employee business expenses, the teacher must itemize his or her deductions, which eliminates any benefit for those who use the standard deduction instead of itemizing (usually because the standard allowance is more than the total itemized deductions).

    Even for those who itemize, miscellaneous itemized deductions are only deductible to the extent that they exceed 2% of the teacher’s adjusted gross income (AGI), so the deductible amount might be wiped out or substantially limited by the AGI reduction. In addition, if the teacher is subject to the alternative minimum tax, some or all of the employee business expense deduction will not be allowed.

    Charitable Contribution – According to the tax code, the term “charitable contribution” refers to a contribution or gift for the use of a state, the United States itself, or the District of Columbia—or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing—but only if the contribution or gift is made for exclusively public purposes.

    Since public schools are part of a political subdivision of a state, any contribution to a school, in either cash or goods, would be a charitable contribution.

    Therefore, a teacher’s classroom supplies, if the teacher properly documents them and if the school provides a written acknowledgment, would qualify as a noncash charitable contribution. Caution: Supplies or equipment that the teacher retains are not considered a completed gift, and their cost does not qualify as a charitable contribution. For example, if a science teacher purchases a microscope that students use in the classroom, but the teacher then keeps it for personal use when the school year ends, the cost of the microscope would not be deductible as a charitable contribution.

    To meet the requirements for noncash contributions, the teacher claiming the contribution must obtain and keep an acknowledgment from the school; the contents of this acknowledgement are based upon the value of the contribution claimed, as detailed below. The acknowledgment must be in the taxpayer’s possession before he or she files a return for the year in which the contribution was made, or before the due date (including extensions) for filing that return, whichever is earlier.

    Deductions of Less Than $250These acknowledgments must include: the name of the charitable organization, the date and location of the charitable contribution, and a reasonably detailed description of the property.

    Deductions of at Least $250 but Not More Than $500 These acknowledgments must include: the name of the charitable organization, the date and location of the charitable contribution, a reasonably detailed description (but not necessarily the value) of any property contributed, and whether the qualified organization gave the taxpayer any goods or services as a result of the contribution (other than certain token items and membership benefits).

    If the taxpayer received goods and/or services in return, the acknowledgement must also include a description and good-faith estimate of their value. (The portion of the donation attributable to the goods and services that the taxpayer received is not deductible.)

    Deductions Over $500 but Not Over $5,000A taxpayer claiming a deduction over $500 but not over $5,000 for a noncash charitable contribution must have the same acknowledgement and written records as for the contributions described in the previous section (for donations of at least $250 but not more than $500). In addition, the records must include: how the property was obtained (for example, by purchase, gift, bequest, inheritance, or exchange); the approximate date when the property was obtained or (if created, produced, or manufactured by the taxpayer) substantially completed; and the cost or other basis (and any adjustments to that basis) of property held for less than 12 months and (if available) the cost or other basis of property held for 12 months or more.

    Deductions Over $5,000There are additional requirements for noncash contributions of this size, including certified appraisals. However, the details are not included here.

    If you have additional questions related to deducting classroom supplies, please give Dagley & Co. a call.

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  • Proving Non-cash Charitable Contributions

    18 February 2016
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    Household goods and used clothing are some of the most common tax-deductible charitable contributions that are encountered. Establishing the dollar value is the major complication of this type of contribution. According to the tax code, this is the fair market value (FMV), which is defined as the value that a willing buyer would pay a willing seller for the item. FMV is not always easily determined and varies significantly based upon the condition of the item donated. For example, compare the condition of an article of clothing you purchased and only wore once to that of one that has been worn many times. The almost-new one certainly will be worth more, but if the hardly worn item had been purchased a few years ago and become grossly out of style, the more extensively used piece of clothing could actually be worth more. In either case, the clothing article is still a used item, so its value cannot be anywhere near as high as the original cost. Determining this value is not an exact science. The IRS recognizes this issue and in some cases requires the value to be established by a qualified appraiser.

    Remember that when establishing FMV, any value you claim can be challenged in an audit and that the burden of proof is with you (the taxpayer), not with the IRS. For substantial non-cash donations, it might be appropriate for you to visit your charity’s local thrift shop or even a consignment store to get an idea of the FMV of used items.

    The next big issue is documenting your contribution. Many taxpayers believe that the doorknob hanger left by the charity’s pickup driver is sufficient proof of a donation. Unfortunately, that is not the case, as a recent United States Tax Court case (Kunkel T.C. Memo 2015-71) pointed out. In that case, the court denied the taxpayer’s charitable contributions, which were based solely upon doorknob hangers left by the drivers who picked up the donated items for the charities. The court stated that “these doorknob hangers are undated; they are not specific to petitioners; they do not describe the property contributed; and they contain none of the other required information.”

    The IRS requires documentation for noncash contributions based on the total value of the donation. First, they require deductions of less than $250 – A taxpayer claiming a noncash contribution with a value under $250 must keep a receipt from the charitable organization that shows: the name of the charitable organization, the date and location of the charitable contribution, and a reasonably detailed description of the property. Please note that the taxpayer is not required to have a receipt if it is impractical to get one (for example, if the property was left at a charity’s unattended drop site).

    Second, the IRS requires documentation for deductions of at least $250 but not more than $500 – If a taxpayer claims a deduction of at least $250 but not more than $500 for a noncash charitable contribution, he or she must keep an acknowledgment of the contribution from the qualified organization. If the deduction includes more than one contribution of $250 or more, the taxpayer must have either a separate acknowledgment for each donation or a single acknowledgment that shows the total contribution. The acknowledgment(s) must be written and must include: the name of the charitable organization, the date and location of the charitable contribution, a reasonably detailed description of any property contributed (but not necessarily its value), and whether or not the qualified organization gave the taxpayer any goods or services as a result of the contribution (other than certain token items and membership benefits). If the charitable organization provided goods and/or services to the taxpayer, the acknowledgement must include a description and a good-faith estimate of the value of those goods or services. If the only benefit received was an intangible religious benefit (such as admission to a religious ceremony) that generally is not sold in a commercial transaction outside the donative context, the acknowledgment must say so, and in this case, the acknowledgment does not need to describe or estimate the value of the benefit.

    Third, the IRS requires documentation if deductions are over $500 but not over $5,000 – If a taxpayer claims a deduction over $500 but not over $5,000 for a noncash charitable contribution, he or she must attach a completed Form 8283 to the income tax return and must provide the same acknowledgement and written records that are required for contributions of at least $250 but not more than $500 (as described above). In addition, the records must also include: how the property was obtained. (for example, purchase, gift, bequest, inheritance, or exchange), the approximate date the property was obtained or—if created, produced, or manufactured by the taxpayer—the approximate date when the property was substantially completed, and the cost or other basis, and any adjustments to this basis, for property held for less than 12 months and (if available) the cost or other basis for property held for 12 months or more (this requirement, however, does not apply to publicly traded securities). If the taxpayer has a reasonable case for not being able to provide information on either the date the property was obtained or the cost basis of the property, he or she can attach a statement of explanation to the return.

    Last, the IRS requires documentation if deductions are over $5,000 – These donations require time-sensitive appraisals by a “qualified appraiser” in addition to other documentation. When contemplating such a donation, please call this office for further guidance about the documentation and forms that will be needed.

    Caution: The value of similar items of property that are donated in the same year must be combined when determining what level of documentation is needed. Similar items of property are items of the same generic category or type, such as coin collections, paintings, books, clothing, jewelry, privately traded stock, land, and buildings. For example, say you donated $5,300 of used furniture to 3 different charitable organizations during the year (a bedroom set valued at $800, a dining set worth $1,000, and living room furniture worth $3,500). Because the value of the donations of similar property (furniture) exceeds $5,000, you would need to obtain an appraisal of the furniture to satisfy the substantiation requirements—even if you donated the furniture to different organizations and at different times during the year. The IRS has strict rules as to who is considered a qualified appraiser.

    To help you document some of these noncash contributions, you can download a fillable Noncash Charitable Contribution statement (http://images.client-sites.com/NonCash_Contribution2010.pdf). The statement includes an area for the charity’s agent to verify the contribution and a check box denoting whether the qualified organization provided any goods or services as a result of the contribution. Although not specifically blessed by the IRS, this statement includes everything needed for noncash contributions of up to $500—provided, of course, that you and the charitable organization’s representative accurately complete the form.

    Do not include items of de minimis value, such as undergarments and socks, in the deductible amount of your contribution, as they specifically are not allowed.

    Please call Dagley & Co. with any questions about documenting or valuing your non-cash contributions.

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  • Are Your Charity Auction Purchases Tax Deductible?

    12 September 2015
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    Have you ever won an item at a charity auction? You may be wondering whether the money you spent on the items purchased constitutes a charitable donation, and we’re happy to answer this tricky charity tax question for you.

    The answer to that question is some, but not all, of what’s paid for the item may be deductible. So if you purchase items at a charity auction, you may claim a charitable contribution deduction for the excess of the purchase price paid for the item over its fair market value you must be able to show, however, that you knew that the value of the item was less than the amount you paid for it.  For example, a charity may publish a catalog, given to each person who attends an auction, providing a good faith estimate of items that will be available for bidding.  Assuming you have no reason to doubt the accuracy of the published estimate, if you pay more than the published value, the difference between the amount you paid and the published value may constitute a charitable contribution deduction.

    In addition, if you provide goods for charities to sell at an auction/fundraiser, you may wonder if you are entitled to claim a fair market value charitable deduction for your contribution of appreciated property to the charity that will later be sold.  Under these circumstances, the law limits your charitable deduction to your tax basis in the contributed property and does not permit you to claim a fair market value charitable deduction for the contribution.  Specifically, the Treasury Regulations (Sec 170) provide that if a donor contributes tangible personal property to a charity that is put to an unrelated use, the donor’s contribution is limited to the donor’s tax basis in the contributed property.  The term unrelated use means a use that is unrelated to the charity’s exempt purposes or function. The sale of an item is considered unrelated, even if the sale raises money for the charity to use in its programs.

    Please contact us at Dagley & Co. for additional information on charitable tax deductions.

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